By Lucy Eldersveld Murphy
In a meeting of Rivers, Lucy Eldersveld Murphy lines the histories of Indian, multiracial, and mining groups within the western nice Lakes zone through the eighteenth and early 19th centuries. For a century the Winnebagos (Ho-Chunks), Mesquakies (Fox), and Sauks effectively faced waves of French and British immigration via diversifying their economies and commercializing lead mining.Focusing on own tales and specific neighborhood histories, Murphy charts the replaced financial forces at paintings within the sector, connecting them to shifts in gender roles and intercultural relationships. She argues that French, British, and local peoples solid cooperative social and fiscal bonds expressed in part by means of mixed-race marriages and the emergence of multiethnic groups at eco-friendly Bay and Prairie du Chien. considerably, local peoples within the western nice Lakes quarter have been capable of adapt effectively to the hot frontier marketplace economic climate until eventually their lead mining operations turned the envy of outsiders within the 1820s.
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Extra info for A Gathering of Rivers: Indians, Metis, and Mining in the Western Great Lakes, 1737-1832
Particular clans, and sometimes particular families within a clan, traditionally provided cer- Native American Village Economies tain chiefs and other tribal and village oﬃcers. For example, Winnebago civil chiefs were usually members of the Thunder clan, and town criers (those who went around a village making oﬃcial announcements) came from the Buﬀalo clan of that tribe. Among the Mesquakies, only members of the Bear clan could become civil chiefs. Other clan-related oﬃces included police or security chiefs, war chiefs, and social welfare oﬃcers among the Winnebagos as well as public speakers.
They cut and collected wood, poles, and bark for the lodges women made, carved wooden dishes for the food women prepared, and provided other services in support of their wives’ and mothers’ production. Some made canoes and other transportation equipment or handsome pipes and other craft items. Older men retired from hunting and soldiering frequently helped kinswomen with their farming or mining work. 33 Mature Indian women had considerable autonomy in their personal lives and economic activities, in part because they exercised control over major resources and forms of production.
84 Gift giving was an important part of diplomacy. Native Wisconsin people saw presents, like courtesy and ceremony, as marks of respect. The quality of a gift revealed both the status of the giver and the amount of respect the giver had for the recipient. A present also created an obligation on the part of the receiver to reciprocate at some future time. Elites in Indian society were able to give many gifts because they had received many, which they in turn gave to others. Native elites did not Native American Village Economies accumulate wealth, however, because Indians scorned greed.