By Chun - Zhu Li
Over the last decade, wide learn has been carried out just about coal as one of many world's best power assets. the present and destiny prestige of this source is a subject of substantial curiosity to the biggest international economies, together with the USA, Japan, China and Europe.
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The fluorine-containing structure can then be analysed using '^F-NMR. The methods may provide detailed information about the 0-containing functional groups in coal such as the detection of aromatic/aliphatic carboxylic acids and primary and secondary alcohols. 46 Chapter 2 There remains much to be done for the quantification of acidic groups by NMR spectroscopy. In addition to improving signal-to-noise ratios, it is still not clear if all carbons would have equal sensitivity. It is well known that -OH of phenols, carboxyls and alcohols in coal can be converted into -OD selectively and quantitatively only by exposing coal to D2O vapour at a reduced pressure and at a temperature lower than 100°C.
B. Pyrolysis as a Method for Quantification ofAcidic Functional Groups Schafer  found a near 1:1 relationship between the total acid group content measured using the barium exchange method and the total amount of CO and CO2 evolved during pyrolysis at 900''C. Schafer believed that carboxyl groups produced CO2 and that phenolic groups produced CO. Clearly, this is an over simplification of the pyrolysis chemistry (see Chapter 4). It should not be considered as a reliable estimate of oxygen-containing functional groups in Victorian brown coal.
Further discussion will be given later in this chapter. XPS Spectroscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy may also be used to get some information about the oxygen-containing functional groups on coal surface , although little has been done to apply this technique to Victorian brown coal. D. 9 R-OH groups per 100 carbon atoms) in a Yalloum coal sample. The total oxygen present as -COOH and -OH groups accounts for less than 70% of the oxygen in Victorian brown coal . g. furans, diaryl, alkylaryl and dialkyl ethers) and carbonyls also exist in Victorian brown coal, although they are much less well studied than -COOH and -OH groups.