By Roman Pampuch (auth.)
This ebook embraces either conventional and complicated ceramics made out of man made or deeply reworked normal uncooked fabrics. Following the trail of ceramic innovation, this advent explains electrical homes of ceramic conductors, like high-temperature superconductors, displays at the interplay of fabric and electromagnetic radiation, provides the significance of voids and defects within the fabric, and gives an outlook on most modern advancements within the box of ceramics, equivalent to clever or self-healing fabrics . It offers a brief grab of the details of ceramic pondering and is a perfect start line for college students within the box of chemistry, fabrics technological know-how or good country physics.
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Additional resources for An Introduction to Ceramics
Recent developments include a transformation of the amorphous glaze into polycrystalline devitriﬁcates (see previous text) which makes it more mechanically strong and resistant to thermal shocks, and making TiO2-rich glazes, to activate photocatalysis in which light photons generate bactericidal radicals (→1. A brief history of ceramic innovation). Other issues, related to the optical properties of glazes, shall be discussed in more detail in an appropriate context (→6. Materials versus light).
1007/978-3-319-10410-2_4 51 52 4 Voids Are Important (a) (b) wall pore Fig. 1 Cellular (a) and foam material (b) csg ¼ csc þ ccg cos / ð4:1Þ where: γsg—surface tension at the solid-gas interface; γsc—surface tension at the solid–liquid interface; γcg—surface tension at the liquid–gas interface; ϕ—contact angle. For ϕ < 90° there is a wettability of the solid (Fig. 2a), and for ϕ > 90° the liquid does not wet the solid (Fig. 2b). e. when the surface tension at the solid–gas interface, γsg, is substantial In contrast to, for example, organic polymers, ceramic materials are distinguished by high values of γsg and, therefore, are usually well wetted by liquids.
Although bloomery-type furnaces (pits dug in clay) had been used for centuries, the mass production of refractories started only during the Industrial Revolution. 1), both early and contemporary refractory materials have been made mainly of low-modiﬁed natural raw materials. Due to the high operating temperatures of refractory materials, these include substances whose mineral ingredients are melting above 1,700 °C (SiO2), 2,000 °C (αAl2O3) or 2,500 °C (Cr2O3, MgO, CaO) They are used in the form of pastes or components made by pressure-forming and sintering at a high temperature.