New PDF release: Anaphora in Natural Language Understanding: A Survey

By Graeme Hirst (auth.)

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S i m i l a r l y , i t will i d e n t i f y the n u m b e r o f g u n s w i t h the n u m b e r o f g u n s t h e y h a v e b y t h e f a c t t h a t t h e f o r m e r is c o n t a i n e d in a n d o c c u r s a f t e r t h e l a t t e r . STUDENT d o e s n o t a c t u a l l y r e s o l v e t h e p r o n o u n s a t all. P h r a s e s c o n t a i n i n g t h i s a r e u s u a l l y t a k e n t o r e f e r to t h e c o n s e q u e n c e of t h e i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g i t e m w i t h o u t l o o k i n g a t t h e r e s t of t h e p h r a s e .

F o r e x a m p l e , i n (2-110): 5SThe term is due to Grinder and Postal (197I), who abbreviate it "I - S = A" ['sic]. 5 Types of reference ANAPHORA 29 (2-110) No Child will a d m i t t h a t h_Reis sleepy. 6. ~(Bz:child) . will-admit-sleepiness x Ambiguity in anaphora and default antecedents Many a n a p h o r s , like t h a t of (2-1t2): (2-112) Ross t o l d Daryel h_eeh a d p a s s e d t h e e x a m . a r e a m b i g u o u s - he c o u l d b e e i t h e r Ross or Daryel. However, s o m e w h i c h a r e t h e o r e t i c a l l y a m b i g u o u s a r e in p r a c t i c e not: (2-113) Daryel told Ross h__e_(1) e was t h e u g l i e s t p e r s o n h__e_(2) e k n e w of.

In e a c h c a s e , o n e m e a n s a l l t h o s e w h o m < t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e s e n t e n c e > a f f e c t s again, a n i t e m i m p l i c i t l y p l a c e d in c o n s c i o u s n e s s . This also h o l d s f o r (2-54). Thus, we s e e t h a t i n d e f i n i t e one is n o t a p a r t i c u l a r c a s e of s t r a i n e d a n a p h o r a . Have you seen my wife, Mr Jones? Do y o u k n o w w h a t i t "s l i k e o n t h e o u t s i d e ? 7. N o n - r e f e r e n t i a l p r o n o u n s S o m e i n s t a n c e s of t h e p r o n o u n i t d o n ' t r e f e r t o a n y t h i n g , a n d h e n c e a r e n o t anaphors, and s o m e have r e f e r e n t s defined by c o n v e n t i o n which n e e d not be p r e s e n t in c o n s c i o u s n e s s .

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