Download PDF by Joseph Needham: Chemistry and chemical technology Volume 5: Chemistry and

By Joseph Needham

Half one of many 5th quantity of Joseph Needham's nice firm is written through one of many project's collaborators. Professor Tsien Tsuen-Hsuin, operating in typical session with Dr Needham, has written the main finished account of each element of paper and printing in China to be released within the West. From a detailed research of the mammoth mass of resource fabric, Professor Tsien brings order and illumination to a space of know-how which has been of profound value within the unfold of civilisation. the most physique of the ebook is a close learn of the discovery, expertise and aesthetic improvement of printing in China. From the expansion and supreme refinements of early woodcut printing to the unfold of printing from movable sort and the improvement of book-binding, Professor Tsien contains the tale ahead to the start of the 19th century while 'more revealed pages existed in chinese language than in all different languages positioned together'.

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Additional resources for Chemistry and chemical technology Volume 5: Chemistry and chemical technology, Part 1, Paper and printing

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Such utensils as the vat, mould, and press used many centuries ago in China are still basic to modern papermaking, as well as the processes of maceration, washing, lifting, pressing, and drying. Historians of paper have agreed that the ancient principles and practices of papermaking are the basis upon which modern paper machines are designed and operated. The following pages will examine in detail some of these traditional ma terials, tools, and methods used before the coming of the machine age in Chinese papermaking.

Paper specimen with writing of the Later Han period. A fragment from Chii-Yen, dated c. + I 10. the Pa-chhiao paper, and can be written on with brush and ink. It is the second find of paper specimens of the Han period with writing. A few artisans of the Han period are known to have contributed to the improvement in the quality of paper. b No other names of papermakers are recorded in early literature or on artifacts, but the methods of Chinese papermaking progressed with new materials and techniques at the advent of each new dynasty.

Su I-chien (+957-95) described the making of a sheet of paper fifty feet long in Hui-chou. The hold ofa ship was used as a vat, and some fifty workers joined in lifting the screen-mould in time to the beating of a drum. This paper was dried over a big brazier instead of on a wall as was usual, in order to make the sheet even. e Many other varieties of paper were perfected in the Sung, including the famous Golden-Grain paper (Chin-su chien 3 ) for copying Buddhist sutrasf Comments by the famous calligrapher Mi Fu ( + 105 I - I 107) indicate that papers made at this time were generally of excellent quality, white, smooth, and absorbent, most suitable for artistic purposes.

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