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These globalized framings do, of course, contain minor variations and contestations, responding to the diverse positions, histories and ideologies of different agencies. Nevertheless, these are largely variations within a broad, dominant contemporary framing of AIDS as an exceptional disease requiring exceptional responses which emphasize biomedical solutions and individual rights (Edstrom 2008). Brugha et al. (2005) point out a competitive dynamic within countries’ engagements with the GFATM process that perpetuates such globalized constructions.
Where citizens have kept state agencies in their sights and included them deliberately in their mobilization strategies, the support lent by the state has positively contributed to the realization of such claims. While the nation-state continues to be important, it is, as we have seen, but one layer of multiple levels of authority. And just as we understand 26 Notes 1 This introduction draws heavily on the conversations and contributions of members of the Global Citizen Engagements Working Group of the Development Research Centre on Citizenship, Participation and Accountability, whose chapters are found in the remaining portions of the book.
17 1 · Citizen engagements risk legitimizing the very global structures the movements sought to challenge, so they were often also supplemented by strategies to create new public spaces – globally, nationally and locally – that could give visibility to their demands. 5 million activists participated simultaneously in actions in 120 countries. For the trade campaigns, popular plebiscites created similar spaces for mobilization: in Paraguay, a citizen-organized consultation in 2003 led to the participation of over 160,000 people, putting the issue on the national agenda.