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By O. Neugebauer

One of many most appropriate employees within the zone of premodern technological know-how provides the traditional nontechnical insurance of Egyptian and Babylonian arithmetic and astronomy and their transmission into the Hellenistic international, including the in particular attention-grabbing, miraculous sophistication of Babylonian arithmetic. fifty two figures.

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For the possibility of an earlier date (about 700) see MeT p. 34 note 95. One might expect that the Babylonian notation should often lead to errors, e. , by mistaking 10,2 for 12 and vice versa. Numbers of this type are, however. is hardly ever to ordinarily written with very careful spacing such that The descriptions of the Babylonian number systems in the be taken as current textbooks arc generally quite misleading on this very point. Nevertheless, there do exist cases where the proper combination of tens and units becomes very doubtful.

Reginald Stuart Poole, Catalogue of Greek Coins. The Ptolemies, Kings of Egypt, p. 44 and Pl. VIII, 5. ): cf. Head, Hist. Num. p. 850. ad 9. The Greek symbols for 6, 90, and 900 are usually called stigma, qoppa, and sampi respectively. The fll'St is originally F (or similar) and therefore also called cCdigamma", that is double-gamma. Later, it assumed forms which were similar to the ligature of c and T in Byzantine manuscripts and it was therefore called "stigma" (since the 7th or 8th cent. ). Its original name is Waw.

Pl. 6a). On it is drawn a square with its two diagonals. The side shows the number 30, the diagonal the numbers 1,24,51,10 and 42,25,35. The meaning of these numbers becomes clear if we multiply 1,24,51,10 by 30, an operation which can be easily performed by dividing 1,24,51,10 by 2 because 2 and 30 are reciprocals of one another. The result is 42,25,35. Thus we have obtained from a = 30 the diagonal d = 42;25,35 by using VI = 1;24,51,10. The accuracy of this approximation can be checked by squaring 1;24,51,10.

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